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Fruit and Vegetable Processing Reference
from C.H.I.P.S.

Fruit and Vegetable Processing
Improving Quality
edited by Wim Jongen

This major collection summarizes some of the key themes in the growing research both on the importance of fruits and vegetables to health and new techniques to preserve the nutritional and sensory qualities desired by consumers.

Part 1 looks at fruit, vegetables and health. There are chapters on the health benefits of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, antioxidants and improving the nutritional quality of processed fruits.

Part 2 considers ways of managing safety and quality through the supply chain. A number of chapters discuss the production of fresh fruit and vegetables, looking at modelling, the use of HACCP systems and ways of maintaining postharvest quality. There are also two chapters on new instrumentation for measuring quality Two final chapters look at maintaining the safety and quality of processed fruit and vegetables.

Part 3 reviews new technologies to improve fruit and vegetable products. Two chapters consider how to extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables during cultivation. The following three chapters then consider how postharvest handling can improve quality, covering minimal processing, new modified atmosphere packaging techniques and the use of edible coatings. Two final chapters discuss two major new technologies in processing fruit and vegetables: high pressure processing and the use of vacuum technology.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Fruit and vegetable processing provides an authoritative review of key research on measuring and improving the quality of both fresh and processed fruits and vegetables.

Contents

  1. Introduction

Part 1: Fruit, vegetables and health

  1. The health benefits of increased fruit and vegetable consumption

    • Evidence of benefit
    • Fruits and vegetables: their constituents and modes of action
    • Health benefits of whole foods over isolated components
    • Influence of cell structure on nutrient delivery
    • Absorption, metabolism and tissue targeting
    • Increasing consumption: what is being done?

  2. Antioxidants in fruits, berries and vegetables

    • Antioxidants from fruits and berries
    • Stone fruits
    • Cirrus fruits
    • Grapes
    • Apple
    • Berries
    • Antioxidants from vegetables
    • Root and tuberous vegetables
    • Cruciferous vegetables
    • Other vegetables
    • Effect of differing processing technologies on antioxidant activity

  3. Improving the nutritional quality of processed fruits and vegetables: the case of tomatoes

    • Processed tomato products
    • The nutritional quality of processed tomato
    • Macro-components
    • Micro-components of nutritional interest: minerals
    • Micro-components: antioxidants and vitamins
    • Micro-components: lycopene and other carotenes
    • The behaviour of nutrients during processing: vitamins
    • The behaviour of nutrients during processing: lycopene
    • Bioavailability of lycopene

Part 2: Managing safety and quality in the supply chain

  1. Modelling vegetable production: the case of tomatoes

    • The importance of modelling to quality
    • Types of tomato production
    • Types of model
    • Mass and energy balances of tomato crops
    • Yield formation
    • The formation of product quality
    • Interactions with pests and diseases
    • Areas of application: yield prediction and crop management
    • Areas of application: climate control
    • Areas of application: irrigation and fertilisation
    • Areas of application: plant protection

  2. HACCP systems for fruit and vegetable cultivation

    • Safety and quality
    • HACCP principles
    • Preparing for a HACCP study
    • Hazard analysis
    • Identifying Critical Control Points (CCPs) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
    • Verification
    • Record keeping and review

  3. Maintaining the postharvest quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

    • What determines the quality of fruits and vegetables?
    • Quality criteria in fresh produce: appearance, texture, flavour and aroma
    • Causes of quality deterioration in harvested fruits and vegetables
    • Respiration, ethylene and senescence
    • Breaking of dormacy and water loss
    • Fungal and bacterial pathogens
    • Physiological disorders
    • Physical injury
    • How the quality of fruits and vegetables is measured: appearance, texture and flavour
    • Maintaining the quality of fruits and vegetables
    • Pre-cooling
    • Pre-storage treatments
    • Refrigerated storage
    • Controlled atmosphere storage
    • Packaging

  4. Measuring fresh fruit and vegetable quality: advanced optical methods

    • The advantages of time-resolved optical methods
    • The principles of time-resolved reflectance
    • Instrumentation
    • Data analysis
    • The effect of skin and penetration depth
    • The optical properties of fruits and vegetables
    • Applications: analysing fruit maturity and quality defects

  5. Applying advanced instrumental methods: mealiness in fruit

    • Defining mealiness in fruit
    • Sensory evaluation and customer expectations
    • Instrumental methods
    • Microscopic imaging
    • Confined compression test
    • Ultrasonic wave propagation
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry and imaging
    • Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy
    • Aroma, sugar and acid analysis
    • Acoustic impulse response technique
    • Electrical impedance
    • Modelling mealiness

  6. Maximizing the quality of thermally-processed fruits and vegetables

    • The development of thermal processing
    • Types of thermal process
    • The principles of thermal processing
    • The thermal resistance of microorganisms
    • Heat penetration curves
    • Thermal process calculations
    • Thermal processing and quality
    • The effect of particular thermal processes on food quality
    • Kinetics of quality deterioration
    • Principles for optimising thermal processes
    • Optimisation models
    • Searching techniques

  7. The safety of cooked chilled foods containing vegetables

    • The manufacturing process
    • The microflora of cooked chilled foods containing vegetables
    • Microbial hazards
    • The control of microbial hazards: heat treatment
    • The control of microbial hazards: storage temperature
    • The control of microbial hazards: heat treatment combined with refrigeration
    • The control of microbial hazards: other techniques
    • Current guidelines and regulation
    • The use of microbiological risk assessment

Part 3: New technologies to maximize quality

  1. Measuring and improving the natural resistance of fruit

    • Plant defence mechanisms and post-harvest quality
    • Plant defence mechanisms: ethylene, phytoalexins and other compounds
    • On-line detection of plant stress: volatile compounds
    • On-line detection of plant stress: non-volatile compounds
    • Methods for improving natural resistance in fruits
    • Anoxic and other treatments
    • Application of plant phytoalexins
    • Pre-storage heat treatment
    • Disease-resistant transgenic plants

  2. Improving the shelf-life of vegetables by genetic modification

    • Senescence of plant organs
    • Genetic control of leaf senescence and fruit ripening
    • Regulation of leaf senescence
    • Cytokinins and senescence
    • Ethylene and senescence
    • Reactive oxygen species and senescence
    • Flavour and shelf-life of vegetables
    • Plant transformation
    • Generic modification of plants to improve shelf-life
    • Assessments of plant quality

  3. Minimal processing of fresh fruit and vegetables

    • Quality changes in minimally processed fruit and vegetables
    • Improving quality
    • Raw materials
    • Peeling, cutting and shredding
    • Cleaning, washing and drying
    • Browning inhibition
    • Packaging
    • Storage conditions
    • Processing guidelines for particular vegetables

  4. New modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) techniques for fresh prepared fruit and vegetables

    • Establishing an equilibrium modified atmosphere (EMA)
    • The use of high O MAP
    • Argon and nitrous oxide MAP
    • Non-sulphite dipping
    • Testing the effectiveness of novel MAP techniques
    • Guidelines for the use of high O MAP
    • Guidelines for non-sulphite dipping

  5. Edible coatings for fruit

    • The development of edible coatings
    • How edible coatings work: controlling internal gas combustion
    • Selecting edible coatings
    • Gas permeation properties
    • Wettability and coating effectiveness
    • Determining diffusivities of fruits
    • Measuring internal gas composition of fruits

  6. High pressure (HP) processing of fruit and vegetables

    • High pressure (HP) technology
    • The impact of HP on spore forming bacteria
    • The impact of HP on vegetative bacteria
    • The impact of HP on enzymatic activity
    • HP processing, fruit and vegetable quality
    • Combining HP pressure with other preservation techniques: the case of fruits

  7. The use of vacuum technology to improve processed fruits and vegetables

    • The role of vacuum technology
    • Principles: mass transfer and product behaviour
    • Applications
    • Post-harvest storage
    • Heat treatment: blanching and canning
    • Freezing
    • Osmotic dehydration and other applications

Index

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Fruit and Vegetable Processing:
Improving Quality

edited by Wim Jongen
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